The various cutting methods of lumber and other wood products and some of the terms
The term lumber means to me that it is any piece of usable solid wood that has been processed
from a tree. There are two general methods that is use in sawing.
There is plain sawn and ther is quarter sawn, each of these methods can determine the stability,
appearance and even the value of the wood.
Plain- Sawn - This being the simplest and most economical method of cutting a board.
The cut are made vertical and or horizonal to the growth rings. Once squared the log is sawed lengthwise
to get the maximum quantity of pieces that has different dimensions with the lease waste possible.
Using this method the lumber shows the annual growth rings vastly and widely across the surface
which appears as oval or u shapes.
Warping can be caused by cutting the lumber this way but
since this method causes less waste the wood can be less expensive than the wood that has been
processed with the quarter-sawn method.
Quartered-Sawn-- This is a method of cutting lumber in which the log is cut into quarters first
then into boards.
The cuts are made parallel to the center of the log. Lumber that is cut using
this method produces more waste from the log thus increasing the cost of the board. Quarter
saw lumber has more advantages of less warping and better overall wearing quality. The annual
growth rings are more in a upright appearance in tis method
Growth-Rings -- A tree grows outward from its' heart or center giving it a new layer
of wood added each year to the outside of thr prior year growth
Availability -- The availability of wood is unlimited depending only on the species in which
we decide to use. Some of the exotic species of wood made be a little harder to have access to.
Work-Ability -- The used of wood can be cut and shaped with somewhat ease, even
with the simplest of our hand tools, The number of things that we can consruct or build with
just a saw, hammer and nails are only limited to our imagination and skill. With the availability
of power tools we can quickly and easily work wood into any shape or form that we desire.
Durability -- If wood is properly protected from dampness and insects it can last
practically indefinitly. If treated with the now availible chemicals of the modern age the durability
of the wood can even be further improved. By applying preservatives to wood it can render it resistent
to decay and other conditions that can harm or weaken the wood.
Defects -- Lumber has flaws or defects which can or will affect the quaulity, appearance and
the strength of the wood. Here are few common defects.
- Warp -- A plane surface that may be bow, cup, twisted, or even crooked.
- Check -- A split or separation across the growth rings.
- Worm Holes -- Holes that bas been made by some sort of insect.
- Decay -- Wood that is soft and crumbly dued to fungi that the wood may have possesed
- Pitch -- A accummulation of resin or sap found in a cavity or pocket of wood.
Plywood / Composites